Java JDK7源码-java.util.HashMap<K,V>

源码

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package java.util;
import java.io.*;

public class HashMap<K,V>
extends AbstractMap<K,V>
implements Map<K,V>, Cloneable, Serializable
{

/**
* 默认的初始容量 - 必须是2的幂次方
*/
static final int DEFAULT_INITIAL_CAPACITY = 1 << 4; // 16

/**
* 最大容量
* 当任意构造函数中指定的容量大于该值时,都将被减少为该值
* 换句话说,容量需要是2的幂次方,且<= 2^30
*/
static final int MAXIMUM_CAPACITY = 1 << 30;

/**
* 默认的加载因子值
*/
static final float DEFAULT_LOAD_FACTOR = 0.75f;

/**
* 当hashMap没有存入键值对时,所使用的默认的空表
*/
static final Entry<?,?>[] EMPTY_TABLE = {};

/**
* 实际使用的,可依需求调整大小的存储桶的表
* 该表的长度必须为2的幂次方
*/
transient Entry<K,V>[] table = (Entry<K,V>[]) EMPTY_TABLE;

/**
* map中存储的键值对个数
*/
transient int size;

/**
* 下一次扩展时需扩展到的容量大小
* 即:capacity * load factor
* 若当前存储桶的数组为EMPTY_TABLE,即尚未存入键值对
* 那么threshold等于预设的初始容量
* @serial
*/
int threshold;

/**
* 哈希表的加载因子
* @serial
*/
final float loadFactor;

/**
* hashMap发生结构性变化的次数
* 所谓结构性变化,指得是改变键值对数目的变化,或是其他修改hashMap内部结构的变化(例如,rehash)
* 本字段被hashMap的集合视图的iterator用于判断是否需要fail-fast(抛出ConcurrentModificationException)
*/
transient int modCount;

/**
* 当针对
* The default threshold of map capacity above which alternative hashing is
* used for String keys. Alternative hashing reduces the incidence of
* collisions due to weak hash code calculation for String keys.
* <p/>
* This value may be overridden by defining the system property
* {@code jdk.map.althashing.threshold}. A property value of {@code 1}
* forces alternative hashing to be used at all times whereas
* {@code -1} value ensures that alternative hashing is never used.
*/
static final int ALTERNATIVE_HASHING_THRESHOLD_DEFAULT = Integer.MAX_VALUE;

/**
* holds values which can't be initialized until after VM is booted.
*/
private static class Holder {

/**
* Table capacity above which to switch to use alternative hashing.
*/
static final int ALTERNATIVE_HASHING_THRESHOLD;

static {
String altThreshold = java.security.AccessController.doPrivileged(
new sun.security.action.GetPropertyAction(
"jdk.map.althashing.threshold"));

int threshold;
try {
threshold = (null != altThreshold)
? Integer.parseInt(altThreshold)
: ALTERNATIVE_HASHING_THRESHOLD_DEFAULT;

// disable alternative hashing if -1
if (threshold == -1) {
threshold = Integer.MAX_VALUE;
}

if (threshold < 0) {
throw new IllegalArgumentException("value must be positive integer.");
}
} catch(IllegalArgumentException failed) {
throw new Error("Illegal value for 'jdk.map.althashing.threshold'", failed);
}

ALTERNATIVE_HASHING_THRESHOLD = threshold;
}
}

/**
* A randomizing value associated with this instance that is applied to
* hash code of keys to make hash collisions harder to find. If 0 then
* alternative hashing is disabled.
*/
transient int hashSeed = 0;

/**
* Constructs an empty <tt>HashMap</tt> with the specified initial
* capacity and load factor.
*
* @param initialCapacity the initial capacity
* @param loadFactor the load factor
* @throws IllegalArgumentException if the initial capacity is negative
* or the load factor is nonpositive
*/
public HashMap(int initialCapacity, float loadFactor) {
if (initialCapacity < 0)
throw new IllegalArgumentException("Illegal initial capacity: " +
initialCapacity);
if (initialCapacity > MAXIMUM_CAPACITY)
initialCapacity = MAXIMUM_CAPACITY;
if (loadFactor <= 0 || Float.isNaN(loadFactor))
throw new IllegalArgumentException("Illegal load factor: " +
loadFactor);

this.loadFactor = loadFactor;
threshold = initialCapacity;
init();
}

/**
* Constructs an empty <tt>HashMap</tt> with the specified initial
* capacity and the default load factor (0.75).
*
* @param initialCapacity the initial capacity.
* @throws IllegalArgumentException if the initial capacity is negative.
*/
public HashMap(int initialCapacity) {
this(initialCapacity, DEFAULT_LOAD_FACTOR);
}

/**
* Constructs an empty <tt>HashMap</tt> with the default initial capacity
* (16) and the default load factor (0.75).
*/
public HashMap() {
this(DEFAULT_INITIAL_CAPACITY, DEFAULT_LOAD_FACTOR);
}

/**
* Constructs a new <tt>HashMap</tt> with the same mappings as the
* specified <tt>Map</tt>. The <tt>HashMap</tt> is created with
* default load factor (0.75) and an initial capacity sufficient to
* hold the mappings in the specified <tt>Map</tt>.
*
* @param m the map whose mappings are to be placed in this map
* @throws NullPointerException if the specified map is null
*/
public HashMap(Map<? extends K, ? extends V> m) {
this(Math.max((int) (m.size() / DEFAULT_LOAD_FACTOR) + 1,
DEFAULT_INITIAL_CAPACITY), DEFAULT_LOAD_FACTOR);
inflateTable(threshold);

putAllForCreate(m);
}

private static int roundUpToPowerOf2(int number) {
// assert number >= 0 : "number must be non-negative";
return number >= MAXIMUM_CAPACITY
? MAXIMUM_CAPACITY
: (number > 1) ? Integer.highestOneBit((number - 1) << 1) : 1;
}

/**
* Inflates the table.
*/
private void inflateTable(int toSize) {
// Find a power of 2 >= toSize
int capacity = roundUpToPowerOf2(toSize);

threshold = (int) Math.min(capacity * loadFactor, MAXIMUM_CAPACITY + 1);
table = new Entry[capacity];
initHashSeedAsNeeded(capacity);
}

// internal utilities

/**
* Initialization hook for subclasses. This method is called
* in all constructors and pseudo-constructors (clone, readObject)
* after HashMap has been initialized but before any entries have
* been inserted. (In the absence of this method, readObject would
* require explicit knowledge of subclasses.)
*/
void init() {
}

/**
* Initialize the hashing mask value. We defer initialization until we
* really need it.
*/
final boolean initHashSeedAsNeeded(int capacity) {
boolean currentAltHashing = hashSeed != 0;
boolean useAltHashing = sun.misc.VM.isBooted() &&
(capacity >= Holder.ALTERNATIVE_HASHING_THRESHOLD);
boolean switching = currentAltHashing ^ useAltHashing;
if (switching) {
hashSeed = useAltHashing
? sun.misc.Hashing.randomHashSeed(this)
: 0;
}
return switching;
}

/**
* Retrieve object hash code and applies a supplemental hash function to the
* result hash, which defends against poor quality hash functions. This is
* critical because HashMap uses power-of-two length hash tables, that
* otherwise encounter collisions for hashCodes that do not differ
* in lower bits. Note: Null keys always map to hash 0, thus index 0.
*/
final int hash(Object k) {
int h = hashSeed;
if (0 != h && k instanceof String) {
return sun.misc.Hashing.stringHash32((String) k);
}

h ^= k.hashCode();

// This function ensures that hashCodes that differ only by
// constant multiples at each bit position have a bounded
// number of collisions (approximately 8 at default load factor).
h ^= (h >>> 20) ^ (h >>> 12);
return h ^ (h >>> 7) ^ (h >>> 4);
}

/**
* Returns index for hash code h.
*/
static int indexFor(int h, int length) {
// assert Integer.bitCount(length) == 1 : "length must be a non-zero power of 2";
return h & (length-1);
}

/**
* Returns the number of key-value mappings in this map.
*
* @return the number of key-value mappings in this map
*/
public int size() {
return size;
}

/**
* Returns <tt>true</tt> if this map contains no key-value mappings.
*
* @return <tt>true</tt> if this map contains no key-value mappings
*/
public boolean isEmpty() {
return size == 0;
}

/**
* Returns the value to which the specified key is mapped,
* or {@code null} if this map contains no mapping for the key.
*
* <p>More formally, if this map contains a mapping from a key
* {@code k} to a value {@code v} such that {@code (key==null ? k==null :
* key.equals(k))}, then this method returns {@code v}; otherwise
* it returns {@code null}. (There can be at most one such mapping.)
*
* <p>A return value of {@code null} does not <i>necessarily</i>
* indicate that the map contains no mapping for the key; it's also
* possible that the map explicitly maps the key to {@code null}.
* The {@link #containsKey containsKey} operation may be used to
* distinguish these two cases.
*
* @see #put(Object, Object)
*/
public V get(Object key) {
if (key == null)
return getForNullKey();
Entry<K,V> entry = getEntry(key);

return null == entry ? null : entry.getValue();
}

/**
* Offloaded version of get() to look up null keys. Null keys map
* to index 0. This null case is split out into separate methods
* for the sake of performance in the two most commonly used
* operations (get and put), but incorporated with conditionals in
* others.
*/
private V getForNullKey() {
if (size == 0) {
return null;
}
for (Entry<K,V> e = table[0]; e != null; e = e.next) {
if (e.key == null)
return e.value;
}
return null;
}

/**
* Returns <tt>true</tt> if this map contains a mapping for the
* specified key.
*
* @param key The key whose presence in this map is to be tested
* @return <tt>true</tt> if this map contains a mapping for the specified
* key.
*/
public boolean containsKey(Object key) {
return getEntry(key) != null;
}

/**
* Returns the entry associated with the specified key in the
* HashMap. Returns null if the HashMap contains no mapping
* for the key.
*/
final Entry<K,V> getEntry(Object key) {
if (size == 0) {
return null;
}

int hash = (key == null) ? 0 : hash(key);
for (Entry<K,V> e = table[indexFor(hash, table.length)];
e != null;
e = e.next) {
Object k;
if (e.hash == hash &&
((k = e.key) == key || (key != null && key.equals(k))))
return e;
}
return null;
}

/**
* Associates the specified value with the specified key in this map.
* If the map previously contained a mapping for the key, the old
* value is replaced.
*
* @param key key with which the specified value is to be associated
* @param value value to be associated with the specified key
* @return the previous value associated with <tt>key</tt>, or
* <tt>null</tt> if there was no mapping for <tt>key</tt>.
* (A <tt>null</tt> return can also indicate that the map
* previously associated <tt>null</tt> with <tt>key</tt>.)
*/
public V put(K key, V value) {
if (table == EMPTY_TABLE) {
inflateTable(threshold);
}
if (key == null)
return putForNullKey(value);
int hash = hash(key);
int i = indexFor(hash, table.length);
for (Entry<K,V> e = table[i]; e != null; e = e.next) {
Object k;
if (e.hash == hash && ((k = e.key) == key || key.equals(k))) {
V oldValue = e.value;
e.value = value;
e.recordAccess(this);
return oldValue;
}
}

modCount++;
addEntry(hash, key, value, i);
return null;
}

/**
* Offloaded version of put for null keys
*/
private V putForNullKey(V value) {
for (Entry<K,V> e = table[0]; e != null; e = e.next) {
if (e.key == null) {
V oldValue = e.value;
e.value = value;
e.recordAccess(this);
return oldValue;
}
}
modCount++;
addEntry(0, null, value, 0);
return null;
}

/**
* This method is used instead of put by constructors and
* pseudoconstructors (clone, readObject). It does not resize the table,
* check for comodification, etc. It calls createEntry rather than
* addEntry.
*/
private void putForCreate(K key, V value) {
int hash = null == key ? 0 : hash(key);
int i = indexFor(hash, table.length);

/**
* Look for preexisting entry for key. This will never happen for
* clone or deserialize. It will only happen for construction if the
* input Map is a sorted map whose ordering is inconsistent w/ equals.
*/
for (Entry<K,V> e = table[i]; e != null; e = e.next) {
Object k;
if (e.hash == hash &&
((k = e.key) == key || (key != null && key.equals(k)))) {
e.value = value;
return;
}
}

createEntry(hash, key, value, i);
}

private void putAllForCreate(Map<? extends K, ? extends V> m) {
for (Map.Entry<? extends K, ? extends V> e : m.entrySet())
putForCreate(e.getKey(), e.getValue());
}

/**
* Rehashes the contents of this map into a new array with a
* larger capacity. This method is called automatically when the
* number of keys in this map reaches its threshold.
*
* If current capacity is MAXIMUM_CAPACITY, this method does not
* resize the map, but sets threshold to Integer.MAX_VALUE.
* This has the effect of preventing future calls.
*
* @param newCapacity the new capacity, MUST be a power of two;
* must be greater than current capacity unless current
* capacity is MAXIMUM_CAPACITY (in which case value
* is irrelevant).
*/
void resize(int newCapacity) {
Entry[] oldTable = table;
int oldCapacity = oldTable.length;
if (oldCapacity == MAXIMUM_CAPACITY) {
threshold = Integer.MAX_VALUE;
return;
}

Entry[] newTable = new Entry[newCapacity];
transfer(newTable, initHashSeedAsNeeded(newCapacity));
table = newTable;
threshold = (int)Math.min(newCapacity * loadFactor, MAXIMUM_CAPACITY + 1);
}

/**
* Transfers all entries from current table to newTable.
*/
void transfer(Entry[] newTable, boolean rehash) {
int newCapacity = newTable.length;
for (Entry<K,V> e : table) {
while(null != e) {
Entry<K,V> next = e.next;
if (rehash) {
e.hash = null == e.key ? 0 : hash(e.key);
}
int i = indexFor(e.hash, newCapacity);
e.next = newTable[i];
newTable[i] = e;
e = next;
}
}
}

/**
* Copies all of the mappings from the specified map to this map.
* These mappings will replace any mappings that this map had for
* any of the keys currently in the specified map.
*
* @param m mappings to be stored in this map
* @throws NullPointerException if the specified map is null
*/
public void putAll(Map<? extends K, ? extends V> m) {
int numKeysToBeAdded = m.size();
if (numKeysToBeAdded == 0)
return;

if (table == EMPTY_TABLE) {
inflateTable((int) Math.max(numKeysToBeAdded * loadFactor, threshold));
}

/*
* Expand the map if the map if the number of mappings to be added
* is greater than or equal to threshold. This is conservative; the
* obvious condition is (m.size() + size) >= threshold, but this
* condition could result in a map with twice the appropriate capacity,
* if the keys to be added overlap with the keys already in this map.
* By using the conservative calculation, we subject ourself
* to at most one extra resize.
*/
if (numKeysToBeAdded > threshold) {
int targetCapacity = (int)(numKeysToBeAdded / loadFactor + 1);
if (targetCapacity > MAXIMUM_CAPACITY)
targetCapacity = MAXIMUM_CAPACITY;
int newCapacity = table.length;
while (newCapacity < targetCapacity)
newCapacity <<= 1;
if (newCapacity > table.length)
resize(newCapacity);
}

for (Map.Entry<? extends K, ? extends V> e : m.entrySet())
put(e.getKey(), e.getValue());
}

/**
* Removes the mapping for the specified key from this map if present.
*
* @param key key whose mapping is to be removed from the map
* @return the previous value associated with <tt>key</tt>, or
* <tt>null</tt> if there was no mapping for <tt>key</tt>.
* (A <tt>null</tt> return can also indicate that the map
* previously associated <tt>null</tt> with <tt>key</tt>.)
*/
public V remove(Object key) {
Entry<K,V> e = removeEntryForKey(key);
return (e == null ? null : e.value);
}

/**
* Removes and returns the entry associated with the specified key
* in the HashMap. Returns null if the HashMap contains no mapping
* for this key.
*/
final Entry<K,V> removeEntryForKey(Object key) {
if (size == 0) {
return null;
}
int hash = (key == null) ? 0 : hash(key);
int i = indexFor(hash, table.length);
Entry<K,V> prev = table[i];
Entry<K,V> e = prev;

while (e != null) {
Entry<K,V> next = e.next;
Object k;
if (e.hash == hash &&
((k = e.key) == key || (key != null && key.equals(k)))) {
modCount++;
size--;
if (prev == e)
table[i] = next;
else
prev.next = next;
e.recordRemoval(this);
return e;
}
prev = e;
e = next;
}

return e;
}

/**
* Special version of remove for EntrySet using {@code Map.Entry.equals()}
* for matching.
*/
final Entry<K,V> removeMapping(Object o) {
if (size == 0 || !(o instanceof Map.Entry))
return null;

Map.Entry<K,V> entry = (Map.Entry<K,V>) o;
Object key = entry.getKey();
int hash = (key == null) ? 0 : hash(key);
int i = indexFor(hash, table.length);
Entry<K,V> prev = table[i];
Entry<K,V> e = prev;

while (e != null) {
Entry<K,V> next = e.next;
if (e.hash == hash && e.equals(entry)) {
modCount++;
size--;
if (prev == e)
table[i] = next;
else
prev.next = next;
e.recordRemoval(this);
return e;
}
prev = e;
e = next;
}

return e;
}

/**
* Removes all of the mappings from this map.
* The map will be empty after this call returns.
*/
public void clear() {
modCount++;
Arrays.fill(table, null);
size = 0;
}

/**
* Returns <tt>true</tt> if this map maps one or more keys to the
* specified value.
*
* @param value value whose presence in this map is to be tested
* @return <tt>true</tt> if this map maps one or more keys to the
* specified value
*/
public boolean containsValue(Object value) {
if (value == null)
return containsNullValue();

Entry[] tab = table;
for (int i = 0; i < tab.length ; i++)
for (Entry e = tab[i] ; e != null ; e = e.next)
if (value.equals(e.value))
return true;
return false;
}

/**
* Special-case code for containsValue with null argument
*/
private boolean containsNullValue() {
Entry[] tab = table;
for (int i = 0; i < tab.length ; i++)
for (Entry e = tab[i] ; e != null ; e = e.next)
if (e.value == null)
return true;
return false;
}

/**
* Returns a shallow copy of this <tt>HashMap</tt> instance: the keys and
* values themselves are not cloned.
*
* @return a shallow copy of this map
*/
public Object clone() {
HashMap<K,V> result = null;
try {
result = (HashMap<K,V>)super.clone();
} catch (CloneNotSupportedException e) {
// assert false;
}
if (result.table != EMPTY_TABLE) {
result.inflateTable(Math.min(
(int) Math.min(
size * Math.min(1 / loadFactor, 4.0f),
// we have limits...
HashMap.MAXIMUM_CAPACITY),
table.length));
}
result.entrySet = null;
result.modCount = 0;
result.size = 0;
result.init();
result.putAllForCreate(this);

return result;
}

static class Entry<K,V> implements Map.Entry<K,V> {
final K key;
V value;
Entry<K,V> next;
int hash;

/**
* Creates new entry.
*/
Entry(int h, K k, V v, Entry<K,V> n) {
value = v;
next = n;
key = k;
hash = h;
}

public final K getKey() {
return key;
}

public final V getValue() {
return value;
}

public final V setValue(V newValue) {
V oldValue = value;
value = newValue;
return oldValue;
}

public final boolean equals(Object o) {
if (!(o instanceof Map.Entry))
return false;
Map.Entry e = (Map.Entry)o;
Object k1 = getKey();
Object k2 = e.getKey();
if (k1 == k2 || (k1 != null && k1.equals(k2))) {
Object v1 = getValue();
Object v2 = e.getValue();
if (v1 == v2 || (v1 != null && v1.equals(v2)))
return true;
}
return false;
}

public final int hashCode() {
return Objects.hashCode(getKey()) ^ Objects.hashCode(getValue());
}

public final String toString() {
return getKey() + "=" + getValue();
}

/**
* This method is invoked whenever the value in an entry is
* overwritten by an invocation of put(k,v) for a key k that's already
* in the HashMap.
*/
void recordAccess(HashMap<K,V> m) {
}

/**
* This method is invoked whenever the entry is
* removed from the table.
*/
void recordRemoval(HashMap<K,V> m) {
}
}

/**
* Adds a new entry with the specified key, value and hash code to
* the specified bucket. It is the responsibility of this
* method to resize the table if appropriate.
*
* Subclass overrides this to alter the behavior of put method.
*/
void addEntry(int hash, K key, V value, int bucketIndex) {
if ((size >= threshold) && (null != table[bucketIndex])) {
resize(2 * table.length);
hash = (null != key) ? hash(key) : 0;
bucketIndex = indexFor(hash, table.length);
}

createEntry(hash, key, value, bucketIndex);
}

/**
* Like addEntry except that this version is used when creating entries
* as part of Map construction or "pseudo-construction" (cloning,
* deserialization). This version needn't worry about resizing the table.
*
* Subclass overrides this to alter the behavior of HashMap(Map),
* clone, and readObject.
*/
void createEntry(int hash, K key, V value, int bucketIndex) {
Entry<K,V> e = table[bucketIndex];
table[bucketIndex] = new Entry<>(hash, key, value, e);
size++;
}

private abstract class HashIterator<E> implements Iterator<E> {
Entry<K,V> next; // next entry to return
int expectedModCount; // For fast-fail
int index; // current slot
Entry<K,V> current; // current entry

HashIterator() {
expectedModCount = modCount;
if (size > 0) { // advance to first entry
Entry[] t = table;
while (index < t.length && (next = t[index++]) == null)
;
}
}

public final boolean hasNext() {
return next != null;
}

final Entry<K,V> nextEntry() {
if (modCount != expectedModCount)
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
Entry<K,V> e = next;
if (e == null)
throw new NoSuchElementException();

if ((next = e.next) == null) {
Entry[] t = table;
while (index < t.length && (next = t[index++]) == null)
;
}
current = e;
return e;
}

public void remove() {
if (current == null)
throw new IllegalStateException();
if (modCount != expectedModCount)
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
Object k = current.key;
current = null;
HashMap.this.removeEntryForKey(k);
expectedModCount = modCount;
}
}

private final class ValueIterator extends HashIterator<V> {
public V next() {
return nextEntry().value;
}
}

private final class KeyIterator extends HashIterator<K> {
public K next() {
return nextEntry().getKey();
}
}

private final class EntryIterator extends HashIterator<Map.Entry<K,V>> {
public Map.Entry<K,V> next() {
return nextEntry();
}
}

// Subclass overrides these to alter behavior of views' iterator() method
Iterator<K> newKeyIterator() {
return new KeyIterator();
}
Iterator<V> newValueIterator() {
return new ValueIterator();
}
Iterator<Map.Entry<K,V>> newEntryIterator() {
return new EntryIterator();
}


// Views

private transient Set<Map.Entry<K,V>> entrySet = null;

/**
* Returns a {@link Set} view of the keys contained in this map.
* The set is backed by the map, so changes to the map are
* reflected in the set, and vice-versa. If the map is modified
* while an iteration over the set is in progress (except through
* the iterator's own <tt>remove</tt> operation), the results of
* the iteration are undefined. The set supports element removal,
* which removes the corresponding mapping from the map, via the
* <tt>Iterator.remove</tt>, <tt>Set.remove</tt>,
* <tt>removeAll</tt>, <tt>retainAll</tt>, and <tt>clear</tt>
* operations. It does not support the <tt>add</tt> or <tt>addAll</tt>
* operations.
*/
public Set<K> keySet() {
Set<K> ks = keySet;
return (ks != null ? ks : (keySet = new KeySet()));
}

private final class KeySet extends AbstractSet<K> {
public Iterator<K> iterator() {
return newKeyIterator();
}
public int size() {
return size;
}
public boolean contains(Object o) {
return containsKey(o);
}
public boolean remove(Object o) {
return HashMap.this.removeEntryForKey(o) != null;
}
public void clear() {
HashMap.this.clear();
}
}

/**
* Returns a {@link Collection} view of the values contained in this map.
* The collection is backed by the map, so changes to the map are
* reflected in the collection, and vice-versa. If the map is
* modified while an iteration over the collection is in progress
* (except through the iterator's own <tt>remove</tt> operation),
* the results of the iteration are undefined. The collection
* supports element removal, which removes the corresponding
* mapping from the map, via the <tt>Iterator.remove</tt>,
* <tt>Collection.remove</tt>, <tt>removeAll</tt>,
* <tt>retainAll</tt> and <tt>clear</tt> operations. It does not
* support the <tt>add</tt> or <tt>addAll</tt> operations.
*/
public Collection<V> values() {
Collection<V> vs = values;
return (vs != null ? vs : (values = new Values()));
}

private final class Values extends AbstractCollection<V> {
public Iterator<V> iterator() {
return newValueIterator();
}
public int size() {
return size;
}
public boolean contains(Object o) {
return containsValue(o);
}
public void clear() {
HashMap.this.clear();
}
}

/**
* Returns a {@link Set} view of the mappings contained in this map.
* The set is backed by the map, so changes to the map are
* reflected in the set, and vice-versa. If the map is modified
* while an iteration over the set is in progress (except through
* the iterator's own <tt>remove</tt> operation, or through the
* <tt>setValue</tt> operation on a map entry returned by the
* iterator) the results of the iteration are undefined. The set
* supports element removal, which removes the corresponding
* mapping from the map, via the <tt>Iterator.remove</tt>,
* <tt>Set.remove</tt>, <tt>removeAll</tt>, <tt>retainAll</tt> and
* <tt>clear</tt> operations. It does not support the
* <tt>add</tt> or <tt>addAll</tt> operations.
*
* @return a set view of the mappings contained in this map
*/
public Set<Map.Entry<K,V>> entrySet() {
return entrySet0();
}

private Set<Map.Entry<K,V>> entrySet0() {
Set<Map.Entry<K,V>> es = entrySet;
return es != null ? es : (entrySet = new EntrySet());
}

private final class EntrySet extends AbstractSet<Map.Entry<K,V>> {
public Iterator<Map.Entry<K,V>> iterator() {
return newEntryIterator();
}
public boolean contains(Object o) {
if (!(o instanceof Map.Entry))
return false;
Map.Entry<K,V> e = (Map.Entry<K,V>) o;
Entry<K,V> candidate = getEntry(e.getKey());
return candidate != null && candidate.equals(e);
}
public boolean remove(Object o) {
return removeMapping(o) != null;
}
public int size() {
return size;
}
public void clear() {
HashMap.this.clear();
}
}

/**
* Save the state of the <tt>HashMap</tt> instance to a stream (i.e.,
* serialize it).
*
* @serialData The <i>capacity</i> of the HashMap (the length of the
* bucket array) is emitted (int), followed by the
* <i>size</i> (an int, the number of key-value
* mappings), followed by the key (Object) and value (Object)
* for each key-value mapping. The key-value mappings are
* emitted in no particular order.
*/
private void writeObject(java.io.ObjectOutputStream s)
throws IOException
{
// Write out the threshold, loadfactor, and any hidden stuff
s.defaultWriteObject();

// Write out number of buckets
if (table==EMPTY_TABLE) {
s.writeInt(roundUpToPowerOf2(threshold));
} else {
s.writeInt(table.length);
}

// Write out size (number of Mappings)
s.writeInt(size);

// Write out keys and values (alternating)
if (size > 0) {
for(Map.Entry<K,V> e : entrySet0()) {
s.writeObject(e.getKey());
s.writeObject(e.getValue());
}
}
}

private static final long serialVersionUID = 362498820763181265L;

/**
* Reconstitute the {@code HashMap} instance from a stream (i.e.,
* deserialize it).
*/
private void readObject(java.io.ObjectInputStream s)
throws IOException, ClassNotFoundException
{
// Read in the threshold (ignored), loadfactor, and any hidden stuff
s.defaultReadObject();
if (loadFactor <= 0 || Float.isNaN(loadFactor)) {
throw new InvalidObjectException("Illegal load factor: " +
loadFactor);
}

// set other fields that need values
table = (Entry<K,V>[]) EMPTY_TABLE;

// Read in number of buckets
s.readInt(); // ignored.

// Read number of mappings
int mappings = s.readInt();
if (mappings < 0)
throw new InvalidObjectException("Illegal mappings count: " +
mappings);

// capacity chosen by number of mappings and desired load (if >= 0.25)
int capacity = (int) Math.min(
mappings * Math.min(1 / loadFactor, 4.0f),
// we have limits...
HashMap.MAXIMUM_CAPACITY);

// allocate the bucket array;
if (mappings > 0) {
inflateTable(capacity);
} else {
threshold = capacity;
}

init(); // Give subclass a chance to do its thing.

// Read the keys and values, and put the mappings in the HashMap
for (int i = 0; i < mappings; i++) {
K key = (K) s.readObject();
V value = (V) s.readObject();
putForCreate(key, value);
}
}

// These methods are used when serializing HashSets
int capacity() { return table.length; }
float loadFactor() { return loadFactor; }
}

已整理层级关系

本类直接继承的类

本类直接实现的接口

综述

本类是Java集合框架中的一员。其中K,V分别是map中key与value的类型。

哈希表是Map接口的实现类,本实现提供了所有可选的map操作,并允许key或value为null(除了线程不安全及允许key或value为null外,HashMap可以被粗略的看作哈希表[Hash table])。

本类不保证map中的元素的有序性。特别的,本类不会保证map中的元素的顺序随着时间的推移是不变的。

如果所用的哈希函数将元素分散到了适当的桶中,对于基本操作而言(也就是get和put),本实现的时间复杂度为常数阶。

迭代本实现集合视图所需的时间与以下内容正相关:

hashMap的”容量”(桶的个数) 及 hashMap的size(键值对的个数)。

因此如果对迭代的性能比较看重,就不能将初始容量设置得过高(或将加载因子设置得过低)。

影响hashMap性能的参数有两个:

  1. 初始容量(initial capacity): 所谓容量,就是指哈希表中的桶的数量,而初始容量,顾名思义,自然就是哈希表在创建时的容量。
  2. 加载因子(load factor): 哈希表装得多满时需要自动扩展的阀值。例如若加载因子为l,当前容量为c,则当entry(即键值对)数超过l*c时,哈希表就需要进行一次重构(rehashed),以扩展自身的容量。重构完成后,哈希表中的容量,或者说是桶数,会大致扩展为原值的两倍。

本实现中,加载因子的默认值为0.75,该值是时间消耗及空间消耗平衡后的结果。加大加载因子降低了空间消耗,但却增大了查找耗时(包括get及put在内,hashMap绝大多数的操作均遵循这个规律)。为了最小化重构操作的次数,在设定hashMap的初始容量时需考虑预期的键值对个数及加载因子的值。如果初始容量与加载因子的乘积大于存入键值对个数的最大值,那么永远也不会发生扩展。

如果已确定会有大量的键值对会被存入hashMap,那么比起设定一个较小的初始容量,导致hashMap反复的扩展,一开始便设定一个足够大的初始容量的性能要更高。

注意,本实现是线程不安全的。如果复数个线程同时访问hashMap,并且至少有一个线程导致hashMap发生了结构性变化(任何导致hashMap增加或删除至少一个键值对的操作,仅仅只是改变某个key的值并不算是结构性变化),那么就必须在外部对hashMap进行并发控制。通常,我们可以以Collections.synchronizedMap方法包装hashMap,从而实现线程安全化。如果我们需要保证hashMap的线程安全性,那么最好在创建之初就完成包装,以避免意外的线程安全性问题。例如,我们可以这样写:

1
Map m = Collections.synchronizedMap(new HashMap(...));

本实现所有的集合视图返回的iterator都是fail-fast的:在iterator创建后,若hashMap因该iterator之外的原因(也就是说不是iterator.remove方法导致的)发生了结构性变化,iterator将抛出ConcurrentModificationException。因此,面对并发修改时,iterator会简单干脆的承认失败,而不会进行复杂的风险评估,判断该并发修改是否会对自身产生影响。

我们并不能指望通过fail-fast来保证线程安全性,iterator抛出ConcurrentModificationException只是尽力而为。

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